SSUSH23b

Describe the political impact of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; include the impact on civil rights legislation Who shot him, why, where, what date. who became president when he died. On November 22, 1963, JFK and his wife landed in Dallas. He had spoken in San Antonio, Austin and Fort Worth the day […]

Describe the political impact of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; include the impact on civil rights legislation

Who shot him, why, where, what date. who became president when he died.

On November 22, 1963, JFK and his wife landed in Dallas. He had spoken in San Antonio, Austin and Fort Worth the day before. From the airfield, the party then traveled in a motorcade to the Dallas Trade Mart, the site of Jack’s next speaking engagement. Shortly after 12:30 p.m., as the motorcade was passing through downtown Dallas, shots rang out; Kennedy was struck twice, in the neck and head, and was pronounced dead shortly after arriving at a nearby hospital.Twenty-four-year-old Lee Harvey Oswald, known to have Communist sympathies, was arrested for the killing but was shot and fatally wounded two days later by local nightclub owner Jack Ruby while being led to jail. Lyndon B. Johnson succeeded Kennedy.

What was Johnson’s viewpoint on Civil Rights

He was slow to commit himself to the civil rights caused, but was eventually forced into action.

What Civil Rights legislation was Kennedy working on that never got passed

Kennedy announced his intention to propose a comprehensive civil rights bill and he also endorsed the massive March on Washington.

Reflection

JFK’s assassination will stick with me. It is so impactful to me because it is hard to wrap my mind around if something like that were to happen today. To me, it was saddening to see all the great things Kennedy had in store for our country. It’s unfortunate that we will never know what our country could’ve been like under a ruling like his.

Resources

http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/john-f-kennedy

https://www.whitehouse.gov/1600/presidents/johnfkennedy

 

 

 

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SSUSH23a

Describe the Warren Court and the expansion of individual rights as seen in the Miranda decision 

What years was Earl Warren Chief Justice, what “type” of court did he have?

Warren was appointed chief justice of the United States by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953. He then retired in 1969. His type of court was later referred to as Warren court.

What was each case about,  the decision and on what constitutional/legal ground

Brown v. Board of Education

The cases was about segregation in schools. Under Warren, the justices unanimously decided that school segregation was unconstitutional.

Gideon v. Wainwright

The Warren Court also looked for equality in criminal justice. Gideon v. Wainwright required counsel for indigent defendants.

Reynolds v. Sims

The Plaintiffs alleged that the last apportionment of the Alabama legislature was based on the 1900 federal census and that the population growth in the intervening six decades has now made representation discriminatory against areas with fast-growing populations. The court ruled that, in most instances, districts should be apportioned to allow each voter to have one, undiluted vote.

Griswold v. Connecticut

T

he case concerned a Connecticut law that criminalized the encouragement or use of birth control. In Griswold v. Connecticut, the Supreme Court ruled that a state’s ban on the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy.

Miranda v. Arizona

This was another court case devoted to criminal justice. The ruling of this case required warnings to arrested persons of their right to counsel, including appointed counsel if they could not afford one.

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Reflection

Most of the information I learned under this standard is new information to me. All of these rulings of the court cases will be the information that sticks with me because these are all court cases that are relevant to our daily lives. In the wold today, it is hard to imagine what it would be like if the ruling of any of the cases went the other way.

Resources

http://www.history.com/topics/earl-warren

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_griswold.html

SSUSH22e

Describe the causes and consequences of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights act of 1965

Civil Rights act of 1964 – which president signed this, what were the provisions of the act, how did this help Civil Rights (discrimination based on race and even gender)  from this point forward

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. The act was first proposed by John F. Kennedy. The act was signed after JFK’s presidency by Lyndon B. Johnson. This helped Civil Rights from this point forward because in the following years this act was able to expand and the additional legislation aimed at bringing equality to African Americans.

24th Amendment – what did the amendment stipulate, how did this help those with limited voting rights

In 1962, the House passed the 24th amendment, outlawing the poll tax as a voting requirement in federal elections. Before, limited voting rights affected African Americans and the poll tax purposely restricted them from voting. With this amendment, poll taxes were eliminated which allowed African Americans a chance to vote in federal elections.

Voting Rights Act of 1965 – What were the provisions of the law, what ways did States try to go around this

The amendment banned the use of literacy tests, provided for federal oversight of voter registration in areas where less than 50 percent of the nonwhite population had not registered to vote, and authorized the U.S. attorney general to investigate the use of poll taxes in state and local elections. However, state and local enforcement of the law was weak and it was often ignored. This weak enforcement happened mainly in the South and in areas where the proportion of blacks in the population was high and their vote threatened the political status quo. 24

Reflection

With the 24th amendment, poll taxes were eliminated and this information is the most important information I learned and it will stick with me. This amendment made a lasting impact to our constitution and the way federal elections work from here on out.

Resources

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-act

http://history.house.gov/HistoricalHighlight/Detail/37045

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/voting-rights-act

SSUSH22d

Describe the Significance of Martin Luther King Jr.’s Letter from Birmingham Jail and his I Have A Dream speech MLK INSPIRATIONAL MEME

When was it written, What was the letter about, why did he write it, to who, what is his argument  – analysis of its importance to Civil Rights Movement

While MLK Jr. was in jail, he wrote a letter to the newspaper explaining why he had broken the law. King wrote the letter because black people had suffered injustice for so long and he believed they should not have to wait any longer for change. He argued that “I am here because injustice is here. I would agree with Saint Augustine that an unjust law is no law at all.” King believed nonviolence was essential and this letter was important to his Civil Rights Movement.

March on Washington – who organized it, what was the objective – Was it achieved

Organized by a number of civil rights and religious groups, the March on Washington was a politically rally including 200,000 Americans. The March was a success as it did what it was supposes to which was allow Americans to protest peacefully about unjust laws. 200,000 black and white Americans shared a joyous day of speeches (including the famous I Have a Dream Speech), songs, and prayers. The March on Washington represented an affirmation of hope, belief, and faith in the fight for racial equality.

I Have A Dream Speech – what was his message, to who was it to – analysis of its importance to the Civil Rights Movement

Martin Luther King Jr. spoke to about 250,000 people attending the March on Washington. He expressed to his audience the struggle ahead and the importance of continued action and nonviolent protest. His speech showed the importance and urgency of racial equality.

Opposite of non-violent

Malcolm X – who was he, how did he appeal to African Americans, how did he think African Americans should go about securing their rights

Malcolm X was an African American nationalist and religious leader. He advocated self-defense and the liberation of African Americans. He was admired by the African American community in New York and around the country.

Black Panthers – objectives, beliefs actions

Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. The Panthers practiced self-defense of minority communities against the US government, and fought to establish revolutionary socialism through mass organizing and community based programs. Their objectives were to establish real economic, social, and political equality across gender and color lines.

Reflection

The information that will stick with me and has stuck with me ever since I first learned about it is MLK Jr’s I Have a Dream speech. Every time I learn about it it baffles me as to how impactful one man’s words could be to a struggling crowd. MLK provided hope for the 250,000 people he was speaking to and to the rest of the country. Going along with the last statement, MLK changed our world to what it is today. Because of him, I live in a diverse world where segregation and racial inequality is no longer an issue.

Resources

http://www.americaslibrary.gov/aa/king/aa_king_jail_2.html

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/march-on-washington

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/king-speaks-to-march-on-washington

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/malcolm-x-assassinated

https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/workers/black-panthers/

happybirthDay

SSUSH22c

Explain Brown v. Board of Education and efforts to resist the decision 

Who was the chief justice, what was the decision on what constitutional/legal ground?

The chief justice was Earl Warren. Earl Warren was a prominent 20th century leader of American politics and law. Warren rejected the Plessy doctrine, saying that “separate educational facilities” were “inherently unequal” because the inequalities of segregation deprived black students of equal protection under the law. Therefore, it was unconstitutional since it violated the 14th amendment.

Brown II

Michael Klarman explained the difference between Brown I and II.”Brown I had said desegregate,” Klarman explains. “Brown II said, ‘Well, do it at your own pace, as soon as practicable.’ White Southerners all saw this as a big victory. Many of them also perceived it as weakness.

Little Rock Nine

On September 4, 1957, the first day of classes at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas integrated 9 black students into their previously all-white school. President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent in federal troops to escort the “Little Rock Nine” into the school. In September 1958, Governor Faubus closed Little Rock’s high schools for the entire year. There was a public vote in Little Rock where citizens voted 19,470 to 7,561 against integration and the schools remained closed.

University of Alabama – year, who, what happened and result

In 1954, Alabama Representative Henry Beatty devised a scheme for maintaining segregation in the state without violating the Brown v. Board decision.  Beatty argued that by creating “free schools” in which both whites and blacks were allowed to attend, Alabama could then create segregated, tuition-based schools to provide an alternative to an integrated school system. Much of the South demonstrated extreme resistance to the Brown ruling, and in the following decade, few efforts throughout the South would be made to integrate public schools. Much of the South rallied against Brown, and it would be a decade before Congress would pass legislation to finally put an end to segregation with the Civil Rights Act of 1964.brown

Reflection

Brown vs. Board of education changed the way schools are integrated for eternity. As a student, it is hard to think about what life would be like with no diversity at our public schools. I believe diversity in schools is so important because children should be exposed to all walks of life. They shouldn’t be narrow minded, especially in an environment like school that is supposed to broaden the minds of students.

Resources

http://americanradioworks.publicradio.org/features/marshall/brownii.html

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/brown-v-board-of-education-of-topeka

https://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/5713

SSUSH22b

Identify Jackie Robinson and the integration of baseball

What year and team did this begin?

He signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947.

Reaction of teammates, other MLB teams, and fans

Some of his teammates objected to having an African-American on their team. Fans made rude and mocking remarks and he and his family received threats. Particularly, at away games, Robinson received the most racial abuse. The most notable harassment was by the Phillies and their manager, Ben Chapman. Chapman and his team shouted derogatory terms at Robinson from their dugout. Many players from opposing teams threatened not to play against the Dodgers; even his own teams threatened to sit out.

When did other black players make it into the major leagues?

After noticing Robinson’s success and perseverance, other African Americans decided to leave their negro leagues to make the Major League integrated, as early as 1947, the same year Robinson joined.  These players included: Cur Roberts, Ernie Banks, Bob Trice, Willie Mays, Same “The Jet” Jethroe, Monte Irvin, Willard Brown, Hank Thompson, and Larry Doby.

Reflection

As a fan of the MLB, I have always been inspired by Jackie Robinson. This impacted my world because it is crazy to think that at one point in time there were no African Americans in a sport that is greatly impacted and has a need for the talent that African American baseball players have.

Resources

http://www.biography.com/people/jackie-robinson-9460813#synopsis

http://www.sports-management-degrees.com/10-first-african-american-players-in-major-league-baseball/

Focus OnThe JourneyNot TheDestination

SSUSH22a

Explain the importance of President Truman’s order to integrate the US military and the federal government.

What was Executive Order 9981?

Executive Order 9981 stated that “there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed forces without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin.”

How did the EO impact the military and federal government?

Executive Order 9981 impacted the military and federal government in that it was a step in the right direction for African American equality. It also ended up expanding our military and making it completely integrated.truman signing

Reflection

This order helped integrate our military and left a lasting impact. The new information I learned that will stick with me is that this helped end segregation in one aspect of our society, which to me is a huge step in the right direction for equality for all.

Resources

https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false&doc=84

https://www.trumanlibrary.org/9981.htm