m-3082Compare and contrast the Student Non-violent coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) tactics; include sit-ins, freedom rides and changing composition

What were the objectives, who were the organizers of the: NAACP, SNCC and SCLC

NAACP- The NAACP’s principal objective is to ensure the political, educational, social and economic equality of minority group citizens of United States and eliminate race prejudice. W.E. Du Bois, Archibald Grime, Ida B. Wells, Mary White Ovington, Henry Moskowitz, William Walling, Florence Kelly, Charles Russell and Oswald Villard founded the NAACP on Feb. 12, 1909.

SNCC – summer of 1964

The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee formed to give younger blacks more of a voice in the civil rights movement. The SNCC was founded by young people who had emerged as leaders of the sit-in protest movement. Freedom Summer was a 1964 voter registration project in Mississippi. The project established 50 Freedom Schools to carry on community organizing, but it managed to register only 12 hundred Afro-Americans.

Freedom Rides & Sit- in – explain what each is, why were these methods chosen over others

Not every business or school complied with the change that is integration; black students started to demonstrate the fact that inequalities still existed and they staged sit-ins. A group of students would sit down at a lunch counter and ask to be served. If they were given food or coffee, they would move down to the next counter. Once they were refused service, they would remain seated until served. If participants were hit, they couldn’t hit back. if they were taunted, they remained silent. This is because these sit-ins demonstrated non-violence. On May 4, 1961 a racially mixed group of people left Washington DC to New Orleans, LA. Along the way the group mixed up their seating and whites moved to the black-only section and vice-versa. They knew what they were doing was legal according to the supreme court but they knew it would create opposition from the public. These chosen methods were non-violent and that is why they were being used.


Montgomery Bus Boycott

On December 5, 1955, to December 20, 1956 African Americans refused to ride city buses in Montgomery, AL to protest segregated seating.

Changing composition – how many African Americans were elected officials (or leaders in their neighborhoods, cities, states) in the 1960’s

There were about 100 African Americans as leaders which was an improvement for the country considering only 50 held office from 1900-1959.

University of California v. Bakke   – Who was the chief justice, what was the decision on what constitutional/legal ground

Allan Bakke, a white applicant, was twice denied admission to the medical school of University of California even though his MCAT scores, GPA, and benchmark scores were “significantly higher” than those of some minority applicants recently admitted.  Bakke sued the University of California in a state court, alleging that the medical school’s admission policy violated Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 14th amendment. The California Supreme Court agreed, finding that the quota system the University of California put in place explicitly discriminated against racial groups and holding that “no applicant may be rejected because of his race, in favor of another who is less qualified, as measured by standards applied without regard to race.”



The freedom rides and sit-ins impacted me the most when I was learning this information. Every time I learn this information it astounds me as to how these protesters stayed completely silent or just simply didn’t fight back. It seems like in our world today people resort to violence first because they think it will create a bigger impact. However, some of the country’s greatest demonstrations have been non-violent.




Describe the causes and consequences of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights act of 1965

Civil Rights act of 1964 – which president signed this, what were the provisions of the act, how did this help Civil Rights (discrimination based on race and even gender)  from this point forward

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. The act was first proposed by John F. Kennedy. The act was signed after JFK’s presidency by Lyndon B. Johnson. This helped Civil Rights from this point forward because in the following years this act was able to expand and the additional legislation aimed at bringing equality to African Americans.

24th Amendment – what did the amendment stipulate, how did this help those with limited voting rights

In 1962, the House passed the 24th amendment, outlawing the poll tax as a voting requirement in federal elections. Before, limited voting rights affected African Americans and the poll tax purposely restricted them from voting. With this amendment, poll taxes were eliminated which allowed African Americans a chance to vote in federal elections.

Voting Rights Act of 1965 – What were the provisions of the law, what ways did States try to go around this

The amendment banned the use of literacy tests, provided for federal oversight of voter registration in areas where less than 50 percent of the nonwhite population had not registered to vote, and authorized the U.S. attorney general to investigate the use of poll taxes in state and local elections. However, state and local enforcement of the law was weak and it was often ignored. This weak enforcement happened mainly in the South and in areas where the proportion of blacks in the population was high and their vote threatened the political status quo. 24


With the 24th amendment, poll taxes were eliminated and this information is the most important information I learned and it will stick with me. This amendment made a lasting impact to our constitution and the way federal elections work from here on out.