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Explain Brown v. Board of Education and efforts to resist the decision 

Who was the chief justice, what was the decision on what constitutional/legal ground?

The chief justice was Earl Warren. Earl Warren was a prominent 20th century leader of American politics and law. Warren rejected the Plessy doctrine, saying that “separate educational facilities” were “inherently unequal” because the inequalities of segregation deprived black students of equal protection under the law. Therefore, it was unconstitutional since it violated the 14th amendment.

Brown II

Michael Klarman explained the difference between Brown I and II.”Brown I had said desegregate,” Klarman explains. “Brown II said, ‘Well, do it at your own pace, as soon as practicable.’ White Southerners all saw this as a big victory. Many of them also perceived it as weakness.

Little Rock Nine

On September 4, 1957, the first day of classes at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas integrated 9 black students into their previously all-white school. President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent in federal troops to escort the “Little Rock Nine” into the school. In September 1958, Governor Faubus closed Little Rock’s high schools for the entire year. There was a public vote in Little Rock where citizens voted 19,470 to 7,561 against integration and the schools remained closed.

University of Alabama – year, who, what happened and result

In 1954, Alabama Representative Henry Beatty devised a scheme for maintaining segregation in the state without violating the Brown v. Board decision.  Beatty argued that by creating “free schools” in which both whites and blacks were allowed to attend, Alabama could then create segregated, tuition-based schools to provide an alternative to an integrated school system. Much of the South demonstrated extreme resistance to the Brown ruling, and in the following decade, few efforts throughout the South would be made to integrate public schools. Much of the South rallied against Brown, and it would be a decade before Congress would pass legislation to finally put an end to segregation with the Civil Rights Act of 1964.brown

Reflection

Brown vs. Board of education changed the way schools are integrated for eternity. As a student, it is hard to think about what life would be like with no diversity at our public schools. I believe diversity in schools is so important because children should be exposed to all walks of life. They shouldn’t be narrow minded, especially in an environment like school that is supposed to broaden the minds of students.

Resources

http://americanradioworks.publicradio.org/features/marshall/brownii.html

http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/brown-v-board-of-education-of-topeka

https://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/5713

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