Describe the rise of conservative movement as seen in the presidential candidacy of Barry Goldwater (1964) and the election of Richard M. Nixon

Nixon Campaign – what was his strategy to win

Nixon campaigned on a platform designed to reach the “silent majority” of middle class and working class Americans. He promised to “bring us together again.” This message impacted the many Americans who were weary after years of antiwar and civil rights protests. Foreign policy was also a major factor in the election. Nixon also promised to find a way to “peace with honor” in Vietnam. images



The new knowledge that I gained from this standard was that Nixon wanted to help reach to the silent majority and working class Americans. This information will stick with me because this is one of the first president campaigns where we see a president vowing for the silent majority and the working class. American politicians should take notes on Nixon’s campaign because we all too often see politicians disregarding the people with no voice and our large working class.




Explain the importance of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring and the resulting developments; include Earth Day, the Creation of the EPA and modern day environmental policy 

Rachel Carson –  who was she, what was her book, Silent Spring about, how did it prompt legislative action – explain Earth Day

Rachel Carson was a marine biologist, environmentalist and writer who alerted the world to the environmental impact of fertilizers and pesticides. Her best known book was called Silent Spring. This book led to a presidential commission that largely endorsed her findings and helped to shape a growing environmental consciousness. Earth Day was created in 1970 after Carson’s book alerted the public. The idea of earth day was to focus on the environment on a national day.

NEPA – what was NEPA, what does the EPA set out to do

The NEPA stood for the National Environmental Policy Act. NEPA requires federal agencies to assess the environmental effects of their proposed actions prior to making decisions. The range of actions covered by NEPA is broad and includes: making decisions on permit applications, adopting federal land management actions, and constructing highways and other publicly-owned facilities.

Major environmental policies that EPA is in charge of now

It includes the following actions:  making decisions on permit applications, adopting federal land management actions, and constructing highways and other publicly-owned facilities.

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I am a huge supporter of all things that are good for the environment. I loved learning about Rachel Carson and how she sought to protect our environment. Today, it is important that we don’t forget the information that she passed on to us. We all too often neglect the environment when we should value the land that we live on.




Analyze Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Worker’s Movement

Who is Cesar Chavez?

He was a union leader and labor organizer who dedicated his life to improving treatment, pay and working conditions for farm workers.

United Farmers Workers Movement – Why was it created, objective, was it successful

The United Farm Workers of America , or more commonly just United Farm Workers, is a labor union for farm workers in the United States. This organization worked with communities to solve their problems through organizing and direct action.




Cesar Chavez was important in that he helped minorities and continued a fight for equality for them. It’s important to learn about people like Chavez. This information will stick with me because it is meaningful information.



Describe the National Organization of Women (NOW) and the origins and goals of the modern women’s movement

Founding of NOW

NOW was established on June 30, 1966 in Washington DC by people attending the Third National Conference of the Commission on the Status of Women. It was founded by 28 women. Its first was Betty Friedan, author of The Feminine Mystique. NOW’s original Statement of Purpose went as followed: The purpose of NOW is to take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now, exercising all privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men.

Major actions and accomplishments  -Take Back the Night how have they contributed to the women’s movement

Take Back the Night is an international event and non-profit organization that tries to end sexual, relationship, and domestic violence. Events often include marches, rallies, and vigils intended as protest and direct action.

Feminine Mystique – what is it, importance

Feminine Mystique is a book written by Betty Friedan. Her overall message in the writing is that woman’s problem today is not sexual but a problem of identity.

Roe v. Wade – Who was the chief justice, what was the decision on what constitutional/legal ground

Roe v Wade recognized that the constitutional right to privacy extends to a woman’s right to make her own personal medical decisions– including the decision to ave an abortion without interference from politicians. The chief justice in this case was Justice Warren E. Burger.



Woman’s rights is important to me for the obvious reason that I am a woman. Without the NOW foundation I feel like there would have been a lot of unheard women’s voices. I also found it interesting that the Roe v Wade case is still up for debate today.



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m-3082Compare and contrast the Student Non-violent coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) tactics; include sit-ins, freedom rides and changing composition

What were the objectives, who were the organizers of the: NAACP, SNCC and SCLC

NAACP- The NAACP’s principal objective is to ensure the political, educational, social and economic equality of minority group citizens of United States and eliminate race prejudice. W.E. Du Bois, Archibald Grime, Ida B. Wells, Mary White Ovington, Henry Moskowitz, William Walling, Florence Kelly, Charles Russell and Oswald Villard founded the NAACP on Feb. 12, 1909.

SNCC – summer of 1964

The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee formed to give younger blacks more of a voice in the civil rights movement. The SNCC was founded by young people who had emerged as leaders of the sit-in protest movement. Freedom Summer was a 1964 voter registration project in Mississippi. The project established 50 Freedom Schools to carry on community organizing, but it managed to register only 12 hundred Afro-Americans.

Freedom Rides & Sit- in – explain what each is, why were these methods chosen over others

Not every business or school complied with the change that is integration; black students started to demonstrate the fact that inequalities still existed and they staged sit-ins. A group of students would sit down at a lunch counter and ask to be served. If they were given food or coffee, they would move down to the next counter. Once they were refused service, they would remain seated until served. If participants were hit, they couldn’t hit back. if they were taunted, they remained silent. This is because these sit-ins demonstrated non-violence. On May 4, 1961 a racially mixed group of people left Washington DC to New Orleans, LA. Along the way the group mixed up their seating and whites moved to the black-only section and vice-versa. They knew what they were doing was legal according to the supreme court but they knew it would create opposition from the public. These chosen methods were non-violent and that is why they were being used.


Montgomery Bus Boycott

On December 5, 1955, to December 20, 1956 African Americans refused to ride city buses in Montgomery, AL to protest segregated seating.

Changing composition – how many African Americans were elected officials (or leaders in their neighborhoods, cities, states) in the 1960’s

There were about 100 African Americans as leaders which was an improvement for the country considering only 50 held office from 1900-1959.

University of California v. Bakke   – Who was the chief justice, what was the decision on what constitutional/legal ground

Allan Bakke, a white applicant, was twice denied admission to the medical school of University of California even though his MCAT scores, GPA, and benchmark scores were “significantly higher” than those of some minority applicants recently admitted.  Bakke sued the University of California in a state court, alleging that the medical school’s admission policy violated Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 14th amendment. The California Supreme Court agreed, finding that the quota system the University of California put in place explicitly discriminated against racial groups and holding that “no applicant may be rejected because of his race, in favor of another who is less qualified, as measured by standards applied without regard to race.”



The freedom rides and sit-ins impacted me the most when I was learning this information. Every time I learn this information it astounds me as to how these protesters stayed completely silent or just simply didn’t fight back. It seems like in our world today people resort to violence first because they think it will create a bigger impact. However, some of the country’s greatest demonstrations have been non-violent.



Describe the social and political turmoil of 1968;include the assassinations of MLK Jr, Robert Kennedy and the events surrounding the DNC

MLK assassination – who killed him, why

King was standing on the second-floor balcony of the Lorraine Motel, where he and associates were staying, when a sniper’s bullet struck him in the neck. He was rushed to a hospital, where he as pronounced dead about an hour later. James Earl Ray killed Dr. King but it is still a debate as to the exact reason why he did so. Evidence suggests that he did not like the integration policies MLK was implementing.

MLK assassination Riots – when, where, why, what happened, affects

Washington DC, Chicago, Baltimore, Kansas City, Detroit, New York City, Pittsburgh, and Cincinnati are just a few of the cities where groups of MLK supporters rioted. In 1968, after MLK Jr.’s assassination people across the country were left hopeless as they fought for racial justice. Rioters marched the streets and over 14,000 federal guards were called to protect certain cities where riots were must prevalent.

Robert Kennedy Assassination – Who killed him, why, what role did Robert play politically at that time

Robert Kennedy was a Senator at the time. He was staying at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles after winning the California presidential primary. Kennedy was shot several times by the 22 year old Palestinian Sirhan Sirhan and he died a day later.

1968 Chicago Democratic National Convention (DNC) riots – causes what happened result

At the DNC in Chicago, tens of thousands of Vietnam protesters battled police in the streets, while the Democratic Party fell apart over America’s stance on Vietnam. For the first time, many Americans came out in a hostile manner over the Vietnam War. This led to people no longer giving the national government unrestrained power to pursue its Cold War policies at the expense of the safety of the U.S. Citizens.



The information I found most interesting and the information that I know will stick with me is what I learned about the DNC in 1968. For once, Americans came out against the government in violence over the Vietnam War. I find it interesting that Americans were very peaceful over their views on the Vietnam war and now they are violent.



Explain Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society; include the establishment of Medicare

What was the “Great Society” – Domestic  policies created and passed to make his “Great Society” possible

Johnson declared a “war on poverty.” He challenged Americans to build a “Great Society” that eliminated the troubles of the poor.

Here is a list of Johnson’s plans that made his Great Society possible:

  • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act provided major funding for American public schools.
  • The Voting Rights Act banned literacy tests and other discriminatory methods of denying suffrage to African Americans.
  • Medicare was created to offset the costs of health care for the nation’s elderly.
  • The National Endowment for the Arts and Humanities used public money to fund artists and galleries.
  • The Immigration Act ended discriminatory quotas based on ethnic origin.
  • An Omnibus Housing Act provided funds to construct low-income housing.
  • Congress tightened pollution controls with stronger Air and Water Quality Acts.
  • Standards were raised for safety in consumer products.

What is Medicare how is it funded, who does it take care of

In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed off on Medicare. Medicare is a health insurance program for elderly Americans. Medicare is funded entirely by the federal government and paid for in part through payroll taxes.



I never learned much about Lyndon B. Johnson up until this point. Never did I realize how much he did during his presidency. During his presidency, he signed the Medicare act. This is something that affects Americans to this day and is still a hot topic in Congress. His idea of a Great Society is something that will stick with me along with the things he did to help Americans